How the “Global Cooling” Story Came to Be

They hold a lot of ice that has been locked away within their interiors since the formation of the solar system. Some comets are occasionally thrown inward after a close brush with a planet or passing star. It makes sense that, during the chaos of the early solar system, Earth would have been pummeled with comets, bringing plenty of water to fill the oceans. Magnification is a measure of how much larger a microscope causes an object to appear. For instance, the light microscopes typically used in high schools and colleges magnify up to about 400 times actual size.

Climate and Environment

She said she began researching and wondered if generative AI art was being used ethically in education. He explained that many students were hopeful for better translation between languages. McCray McGee put Squanto’s advice about using dead fish as fertilizer to the test in the family garden. Volunteers in the Ask an Expert Forums helped McCray and his family keep the project age-appropriate. With the help of Ask an Expert and a mentoring relationship with Science Buddies volunteer, Donna Hardy from Bio-Rad, Christina Wang completed top-level microbiology research and went to the Intel ISEF as both a sophomore and a junior. Science Buddies is dedicated to helping increase K-12 science literacy and fostering enthusiasm for science and science fair projects. We have several programs and opportunities for volunteers interested in sharing their own science expertise or interested in helping spread the word about Science Buddies.

Researchers have long used the relative amount of deuterium compared with hydrogen — known as the D/H ratio — to trace water back to where it originated. At colder temperatures, deuterium starts to show up in ice more frequently.

The answer lies in deuterium ratios and a theory called the Grand Tack

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Theoretical computer science

In the absence of giant planets, water delivery could happen naturally as planets pull in debris from different parts of the solar system. Recent observations from the Kepler space telescope suggest that planets the size of Jupiter are relatively uncommon around other stars. Electron microscopes differ from light microscopes in that they produce an image of a specimen by using a beam of electrons rather than a beam of light. Electrons have much a shorter wavelength than visible light, and this allows electron microscopes to produce higher-resolution images than standard light microscopes. Electron microscopes can be used to examine not just whole cells, but also the subcellular structures and compartments within them. Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē (“earth”) and -λoγία, -logia, (“study of”, “discourse”)) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

He was one of the dominant physicists of his time, the Age of Steam. His achievements ran from helping formulate the laws of thermodynamics to advising on the first transatlantic telegraph cable. Harlow Shapley, who wrote an article in 1919 on the subject, was an astronomer, responsible for the detection of the redshift in distant nebulae and hence, indirectly, for our present concept of an expanding universe. Florian Cajori, author of the 1908 article “The Age of the Sun and the Earth,” was a historian of science and, especially, of mathematics, and Ray Lankester, whom he quotes, was a zoologist. S. Shelton was a philosopher of science, critical (as shown in his contribution, the 1915 article “Sea-Salt and Geologic Time”) of loose thinking and a defender of evolution in debates. That is the background to the intellectual drama being played out in this series of papers. It is a drama consisting of a prologue and three acts, complex characters, and no clear heroes or villains.